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Refrigerator and its working

Refrigerator Basic  working Principal:

To understand how a fridge works, you have to take inspiration from the human body: when we sweat, sweat produces a feeling of cold when it evaporates, because it takes calories from our skin. For a refrigerator, it's basically the same thing: you force the liquid to evaporate so that it takes heat inside the fridge.

The fluid first enters the evaporator . As it is a very thin tube, it goes drop by drop: the molecules disperse and the fluid becomes gaseous. Very cooled (-40 ° C), it seeks to warm up by absorbing the heat that is inside the refrigerator.

Then the gas is again compressed and liquefied in the condenser (coil outside), where it releases the stored heat.

At the end of this circuit, the liquid is dehydrated to rid it of water, air and the various impurities which it has picked up.

Contrary to popular belief, the refrigerator does not "make" cold, but captures the heat inside the fridge . If the door is opened too often or if hot dishes are placed in it, the appliance switches on more often to restore the initial balance. It consumes more therefore more energy. It is also important to defrost the fridge regularly: a 2 mm layer of ice increases consumption by 10% because it prevents heat exchange.


A good refrigerant must meet several conditions. It must evaporate at a pressure above atmospheric pressure and at a temperature below 0 ° C. It must also be chemically stable, non-flammable, non-toxic ?? and cheap.

Many refrigerants have been used since the beginnings of the fridge. William Cullen succeeded in producing ice with ether in the 18th century , which evaporates 25 times faster than water. Since ether is highly flammable, the German engineer Carl Von Linde patented an ammonia cold room in 1876 . This gas is ideal because it takes very little energy to lower its sensible heat (that exchanged with the surrounding environment without phase change). 130 joules are enough to pass a gram of gaseous ammonia from 25 ° C to -33 ° C. Unfortunately, ammonia is also very toxic, and was banned from refrigerators in the 1930s.

It is then replaced by Freon , a gas from the CFC family (chlorofluorocarbons). But we see that this gas causes a degradation of the ozone layer. In 1987, 180 countries signed the Montreal Protocol, banning its use. It has since been replaced by hydrocarbons (isobutane or hydrofluorocarbons - HFC ), safe for the ozone layer, but ?? powerful greenhouse gases.

Technical improvements:

  •   Regulated cold : 

The forced cold air is distributed in columns with multiple outlets for a uniform distribution of the cold on each of the floors. Food can be stored up to 3 times longer than in a conventional fridge.

  •   The linear compressor :

 it replaces the piston compressor and therefore reduces losses by heat transfer and friction. Result: 30% energy savings and a quieter fridge.
Source and other website from internet


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