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Kidney: Function Location Organization Importance

Kidney:

The kidneys are actually two bean-shaped excretory organs that excrete or filter out unnecessary blood components (especially urea) from the body in the form of urine with water.
The branch of medicine and wisdom that studies the interpretation, function, pathology and treatment of the kidneys is called nephrology.

Kidney Location in Human Body:

In humans, the kidneys are found on both sides of the spinal cord, towards the back of the abdomen, that is, towards the lumbar wall. The right kidney is found below the liver and the left kidney below the spleen. At the top of each kidney is a small body called the adrenal gland, which is actually a gland that secretes hormones. Another important thing about the location of the kidneys is that the right kidney is slightly lower than the left (this can be clearly seen in the form).
The kidneys are then retroperitoneal organs, meaning they are located behind the lining of the abdominal cavity, called the peritoneum. Their position on the spinal cord seals is from the twelfth sentence of the chest to the third sentence of the lower back. The advantage of this location of the kidneys is that because of this location, their upper part is protected by the ribs where the view is.
In addition, each kidney is wrapped in two layers of fat, called peri nephric and para nephric, both of which act like a mattress to protect the kidneys. The absence or disappearance of the kidneys at birth is called renal agenesis. It can be either unilateral or bilateral. Contrary to congenital kidney failure, birth defects can sometimes lead to an increase in the natural number of kidneys.

Organization:

In humans, the kidneys are usually about 12 centimeters long and 5 centimeters thick and weigh 150 grams. They have the shape of a bean in which the inner or central side is concave while the lateral side is relatively convex. Towards the concave side, each kidney has a pit called the hilum, from which the arteries that carry blood to the kidneys, the arteries that enter the arteries, and the vessels that draw blood, the arteries that discharge (see Figures 1- 13 and 14). )۔ In addition, nerves enter the kidneys from the same pit, and from the same pit, a tube called the ureter, which carries urine from the kidneys to the bladder, also appears.The outer part of the kidney is called the renal cortex. Beneath it is another part or layer of the kidney called the renal medulla. As can be seen in the figure, the lip key actually consists of 10 to 20 pyramids. Each pyramid works in conjunction with the cortex above it, and this functional unit is called the lobe of the kidney. The end of each pyramid (which faces the inside of the kidney) is called the papilla  which discharges its contents into the cup-like part of the calyx. These tiny cassettes then put their contents into a large box called the pelvis. From here, the urine passes through the urethra and enters the bladder.

Blood supply:

Each kidney is supplied with a blood vessel called the coronary artery, which is itself a branch of the abdominal aorta. This artery divides into smaller arteries called the interlobar arteries after entering the kidney, the pit of the kidney, or the hilum. These arteries then travel between the helminthiasis  and reach the outer limit of the lip clitoris (which is adjacent to the cortical clitoris). Which travels between the cortex and the lip. More small arteries now emerge from these arterial arteries, also called cortical radial arteries or sometimes interlobular arteries.
And these inter vertebral arteries are the last-stage arteries from which the afferent arterioles emerge, which filter the blood to the most important parts of the kidney, which are called the glomerular capillaries. is called. Here, when the blood is filtered, it then enters the efferent arterioles. This blood now travels through the venules to the veins of the clitoris to be transported back to the heart and from here to the heart through the lower vein cavity. Sweeteners that are close to the lip clitoris and belong to the adjacent lip clen (juxtamedullary nephrons) send vaso recta to the lip cortex.

Nephron:

The nephron is actually the actual functional unit of the kidney, or it may be said that the nephron is actually the blood filtering structure in the kidney. And a kidney has more than 3 to 1 million clots that are found in both the cortex of the kidneys and the lips. Cleanses control the amount of water and soluble substances (such as electrolytes) in the body as needed by the body. For this purpose, they first purify the blood under pressure and then absorb the essential water and useful molecules from the filtered blood back into the blood before reaching the urine, repeating the process of re absorption. is called re absorption. There are two main methods used in the factors of re-absorption and secretion which we call co transport and counter transport.

The urinary tract system:

The fluid that is filtered out of the blood in the clot enters the system of ducts connected to the back of it, which is called the condensate system. This part is very important for maintaining the amount of fluid or water in the body of the living being. This is because when the body has more water than it needs, it excretes it in the urine and if the body is dehydrated, it prevents it from excreting it in the urine.
In the presence of a hormone called anti-urinary hormone, these canals pass through the water and thus most of the filtered fluid from the blood is absorbed back into the blood, thus concentrating the urine in it. The amount of water discharged decreases. Conversely, when there is an excess amount of water in the body of an animal that needs to be eliminated, the production of anti-urinary hormone is reduced and its deficiency makes the canals impassable to water and thus The filtered water cannot be reabsorbed into the blood and is excreted in the urine. If there is a defect in maintaining the amount of anti-urinary hormone that the body needs, then the disease that occurs is called the syndrome of inappropriate anti diuretic hormone.
After functioning in the condensate system, the fluid that is filtered out of the blood enters the bladder through the cup, basin, and urethra. From there it is expelled out of the body through the urethra.

Emissions:

The kidneys remove waste and harmful substances from the body as a result of metabolism. Metabolism is the process of breaking down food in the body which results in the production of energy, water and waste products such as urea and uric acid.

homeostasis:

In fact, there is a balance between the chemical reactions that take place inside the cell (literally, in other organisms) (which is called evolution as a whole) and then there is a need to maintain a suitable proportion of this internal balance, extracellular or external environment. This is called homeostasis. And the kidneys play an important role in establishing this balance.

Balancing Acid and Base:

Here it is briefly stated that the kidneys keep the pH of the blood at the most suitable place for life i.e. 4.7 by raising or lowering the pH of urine between 5 and 8.

Blood Pressure:

The adjacent juxtaglomerular cells in the kidney cleavage are sensitive to blood pressure, and when the blood pressure in the body begins to drop, a substance called renin is released from them. This renin converts angiotensinogen, a protein present in the blood, into angiotensin I, which is 10 amino acids long. Now this angiotensin I, floating in the blood, goes to the lungs, then another enzyme called angiotensin replacement enzyme converts this angiotensin I to angiotensin II, which is 8 amino acids long.

The amount of water in the body:

It now secretes angiotensin II, a hormone called aldosterone, through the adrenal cortex, which acts on the renal system to increase the absorption of sodium back into the bloodstream. But the reabsorption of water also increases to the same extent due to which the blood pressure eventually rises to normal.
When the amount of water in the body starts to decrease, the kidneys reduce the excretion of water in the urine. This is done with the help of anti-hormone which is secreted from the posterior pituitary. And this hormone (as mentioned earlier) reduces the amount of water in the urine and makes it concentrated.

Releasing of Hormones:

The kidneys also release many hormones into the body, such as erythropoietin, urodyltin, and vitamin D.
Source :This info is taken from different websites on Internet


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